A common newbie mistake made is using aquatic plants that are not truly aquatic. In fact most aquatic plants use in planted tank are found outside the water in nature, their adaptation to living in flooded environments has allowed them to grow and thrive underwater. There are many different type of plants use in the planted tank, some of the most common are.
Stem plants: most stem plants are fast growing and reaches tall heights. Because of the fast growing nature they can be use to indicate water and nutrient quality, pay attention to how they grow and treat the problems you have.
Many stem plants are perfect background plants.
Some stem plants are low growing and make excellent carpet plants.
Rosette plants: Contains sword plants and Cryptocorynes, most are use as a mid foreground plants and make perfect center piece. Large sword plants like amazon swords, brazil swords and melon swords can reach impressive size and are not suited for smaller tanks. Their large leaves are often rather impressive and can provide good contrast. Cryptocorynes on the the other hands usualy reach around 5-6" and can be use in smaller tanks.
amazon swords, it can really get this big.
Ferns, grasses and mosses.
Ferns and mosses are interesting that they grow using a rhizome. treat rhizomes like you would treat a stem. Some plants like java fern and anubias don't like it when you buried their rhizomes, only the roots should be buried. Mosses make good attachment to wood and rocks, they also provide hiding space for baby shrimp and fishes as well as micro organism.
They make good placement as a mid background plants.
some make good carpet plants.
Fissiden are one of the coolest moss.
I hope you enjoyed this, remember, none of these pictures are mine unless stated so.